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Figure F5. Compilation of benthic δ13C data through the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Northern hemisphere sites typically show more positive δ13C in the core of the PETM than Southern Ocean sites, indicating most deep water was formed in the northern basins. Before and after the PETM, however, the δ13C gradient is reversed indicating southern sources of deep water. From Nuñes and Norris (2006). VPDB = Vienna Peedee belemnite.

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