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Figure F1. Global deep-sea oxygen and carbon isotope records from the last 65 m.y. (Zachos et al., 2001). The 18O record exhibits a number of steps and peaks that reflect on episodes of global warming and cooling and ice sheet growth and decay. The general cooling trend from 50 m.y. ago and the abrupt "climatic threshold events" are shown. Note the event 34 m.y. ago when abrupt global cooling led to the first ice sheets developing on Antarctica. Plio. = Pliocene, Pleist. = Pleistocene, Mi-1 = Miocene isotope event 1, Oi-1 = Oligocene isotope event 1.

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