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Figure F3. Different hypothetical models for the driving mechanisms of the opening of the South China Sea. A. Opening induced by India-Eurasia continental collision and consequent tectonic extrusion (Tapponnier et al., 1982, 1990; Briais et al., 1993; Leloup et al., 2001; Flower et al., 2001). B. Opening induced by slab pull and subduction of the proto-South China Sea (Taylor and Hayes, 1980, 1983; Holloway, 1982; Hall, 2002). C. Opening induced by an upwelling mantle plume (e.g., Fan and Menzies, 1992; Xu et al., 2012). D. Opening induced by regional extension related to subduction and retreat of the Pacific plate (Taylor and Hayes, 1980, 1983; Shi and Li, 2012).

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