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Figure F1. Tectonic framework of the Arctic Ocean (after Jackson and Gunnarson, 1990; Jakobsson, 2000). The Gakel Ridge began the rifting of the Lomonosov Ridge at ~57 Ma, moving it away from the outer continental margin of Siberia and creating the Eurasian Basin. At about the same time, crustal spreading started in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Spreading in the Labrador Sea ended at ~33 Ma. This may mark the shift in the connection of the Gakel Ridge from the Labrador Sea spreading center to the Norwegian-Greenland spreading center; the Gakel Ridge split the Yermak (Y) and Marion Jessup (MJ) Plateaus at about this time.

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