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Table T1. Cultivation media used in this study.

Target microorganisms Medium Headspace gas Reference
Methanogens MMJ medium H2:CO2 (80:20, 300 kPa) Takai et al., 2002
Anaerobic hydrogen oxidizers DSMZ medium 383 using the basic seawater
medium with resazurin (1 mg/L) instead of
Solution A
H2:N2:CO2 (70:20:10, 200 kPa)
Aerobic hydrogen oxidizers Basic seawater medium supplemented with
the following per 1 L:
0.5 g NaHCO3,
2.5 mg NiCl2·6H2O,
2.5 mg Na2WO4·2H2O,
0.1 mg Na2SeO3·5H2O,
1 mL trace element solution SL-10 (DSMZ
medium 320), and
1 mL vitamin complex solution (DSMZ
medium 141)
H2:N2:O2:CO2 (49:47:3:1, 200 kPa)
Aerobic sulfur oxidizers The medium described above for aerobic
hydrogen oxidizers with 1 mM sodium
thiosulfate and ~0.1 g elemental sulfur per
N2:O2 (95:5, 100 kPa)  

Basic seawater medium = 0.06 g KH2PO4, 0.17 g Na2HPO4, and 0.25 g NH4NO3 per L of artificial seawater MARINE ART SF-1. MMJ = marine medium salts in artificial seawater.

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