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Berggren, W.A., 1984. Neogene plankton foraminiferal biostratigraphy and biogeography: Atlantic, Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific regions. In Tsuchi, R., Ikebe, N., and IGCP Project 114 (Eds.), Pacific Neogene Datum Planes: Contributions to Biostratigraphy and Chronology: Tokyo (Univ. Tokyo Press), 111–161.

Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., and Van Couvering, J.A., 1985. The Neogene, Part 2. Neogene geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In Snelling, N.J. (Ed.), The Chronology of the Geological Record. Mem.—Geol. Soc. London, 10:211–260. doi:10.1144/​GSL.MEM.1985.010.01.18

Cita, M.B., 1973. Pliocene biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy. In Ryan, W.B.F., Hsü, K.J., et al. Init. Repts. DSDP, 13: Washington, DC (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 1343–1379. doi:10.2973/​dsdp.proc.13.147-1.1973

Expedition 306 Scientists, 2005. North Atlantic climate 2. IODP Prel. Rept., 306. doi:10.2204/​

Hilgen, F.J., 1991a. Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for the geomagnetic polarity time scale. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 104(2–4):226–244. doi:10.1016/​0012821X(91)90206W

Hilgen, F.J., 1991b. Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 107(2):349–368. doi:10.1016/​0012821X(91)90082S

Iaccarino, S., 1985. Mediterranean Miocene and Pliocene planktic foraminifera. In Bolli, H.M., Saunders, J.B., and Perch-Nielsen, K. (Eds.), Plankton Stratigraphy: Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press), 283–314.

Kennett, J.P., and Srinivasan, M.S., 1983. Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera: A Phylogenetic Atlas: Stroudsburg, PA (Hutchinson Ross).

Lisiecki, L.E., and Raymo, M.E., 2005. A Pliocene–Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography, 20(1):PA1003. doi:10.1029/​2004PA001071

Lourens, L.J., Antonarakou, A., Hilgen, F.J., Van Hoof, A.A.M., Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., and Zachariasse, W.J., 1996a. Evaluation of the Plio-Pleistocene astronomical timescale. Paleoceanography, 11(4):391–414. doi:10.1029/​96PA01125

Lourens, L.J., Hilgen, F.J., and Raffi, I., 1998. Base of large Gephyrocapsa and astronomical calibration of early Pleistocene sapropels in Site 967 and Hole 969D: solving the chronology of the Vrica section (Calabria, Italy). In Robertson, A.H.F., Emeis, K.-C., Richter, C., and Camerlenghi, A. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 160: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 191–197. doi:10.2973/​

Lourens, L.J., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., and Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1996b. Early Pleistocene chronology of the Vrica section (Calabria, Italy). Paleoceanography, 11(6):797–812. doi:10.1029/​96PA02691

Raymo, M.E., Ruddiman, W.F., Backman, J., Clement, B.M., and Martinson, D.G., 1989. Late Pliocene variation in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and North Atlantic deep water circulation. Paleoceanography, 4(4):413–446. doi:10.1029/​PA004i004p00413

Stein, R., Kanamatsu, T., Alvarez-Zarikian, C., Higgins, S.M., Channell, J.E.T., Aboud, E., Ohno, M., Acton, G.D., Akimoto, K., Bailey, I., Bjørklund, K.R., Evans, H., Nielsen, S.H.H., Fang, N., Ferretti, P., Gruetzner, J., Guyodo, Y.J.B., Hagino, K., Harris, R., Hatakeda, K., Hefter, J., Judge, S.A., Kulhanek, D.K., Nanayama, F., Rashid, H., Sierro Sanchez, F.J., Voelker, A., and Zhai, Q., 2006. North Atlantic paleoceanography: the last five million years. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 87(13):129–133. doi:10.1029/​2006EO130002

Weaver, P.P.E., 1987. Late Miocene to recent planktonic foraminifers from the North Atlantic: Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 94. In Ruddiman, W.F., Kidd, R.B., Thomas, E., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 94: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 703–727. doi:10.2973/​dsdp.proc.94.114.1987

Weaver, P.P.E., and Clement, B.M., 1986. Synchroneity of Pliocene planktonic foraminiferal datums in the North Atlantic. Mar. Micropaleontol., 10(4):295–307. doi:10.1016/​03778398(86)900332

Weaver, P.P.E., and Clement, B.M., 1987. Magnetobiostratigraphy of planktonic foraminiferal datums: Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 94, North Atlantic. In Ruddiman, W.F., Kidd, R.B., Thomas, E., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 94: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 815–829. doi:10.2973/​dsdp.proc.94.120.1987