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This research used samples and data provided by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 316. We thank the crew and technical staff of the D/V Chikyu. We are grateful for the assistance with sulfur isotope analysis by S. Lilienthal and for insightful comments by B.K. Frieda. Research support was provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Max Planck Society, US National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Astrobiology Institute (NAI) Postdoctoral Program.