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Methods and materials

Site U1391 is located off southwestern Iberia (37°21.5322′N, 9°24.6558′W; 1085 m water depth). Three holes were drilled. Holes U1391A and U1391B reached 353 mbsf, whereas in Hole U1391C, sediment was washed out to 340 mbsf followed by rotary drilling to 671.5 mbsf.

XRF measurements were performed at 3 cm resolution along the shipboard-defined splice between 76.51 and 205.77 mbsf (81.47–235.53 mcd) with an AVAATECH scanner at the Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM) at the University of Bremen (Germany) following procedures in Röhl and Abrams (2000). This nondestructive analytical method determines the major and minor elements present in the sediments.

Following the example of the methodology applied for Site U1385 (Hodell et al., 2015), we used the log(Ca/Ti) combined with the log(Ca/Fe) to improve the shipboard defined splice.