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Bach, W., and Edwards, K.J., 2003. Iron and sulfide oxidation within the basaltic ocean crust: implications for chemolithoautotrophic microbial biomass production. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(20):3871–3887. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00304-1

Bode, G.W., 1979. Grain-size and carbon/carbonate analysis, Leg 45. In Melson, W.G., Rabinowitz, P.D., et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Program, 45: Washington, DC (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 379–380. doi:10.2973/dsdp.proc.45.113.1979

Cody, G.D., and Alexander, C.M.O., 2005. NMR studies of chemical structural variation of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69(4):1085–1097. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.031

Durand, B., and Nicaise, G., 1980. Procedures for kerogen isolation. In Durand, B. (Ed.), Kerogen Insoluble Organic Matter From Sedimentary Rocks: Paris (Editions Technip), 35–53.

Expedition 336 Scientists, 2012. Expedition 336 summary. In Edwards, K.J., Bach, W., Klaus, A., and the Expedition 336 Scientists, Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, 336: Tokyo (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). http://​​10.2204/​iodp.proc.336.101.2012

Ferdelman, T., Ziebis, W., and McManus, J., 2011. North Pond: a model for the biogeochemical development of an open ocean sub-seafloor sedimentary ecosystem? Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13:EGU2011-5092.

Fisher, A.T., Davis, E.E., Hutnak, M., Spiess, V., Zühlsdorff, L., Cherkaoui, A., Christiansen, L., Edwards, K., Macdonald, R., Villinger, H., Mottl, M.J., Wheat, C.G., and Becker, K., 2003. Hydrothermal recharge and discharge across 50 km guided by seamounts on a young ridge flank. Nature, 421(6923):618–621. doi:10.1038/​nature01352

Kallmeyer, J., Pockalny, R., Adhikari, R.R., Smith, D.C., and D’Hondt, S., 2012. Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(40):16213–16216. doi:10.1073/​pnas.1203849109

Langseth, M.G., Hyndman, R., Becker, K., Hickman, S.H., and Salisbury, M., 1984. The hydrogeological regime of isolated sediment ponds in mid-oceanic ridges. In Hyndman, R.D., Salisbury, M.H., et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Program, 78B: Washington, DC (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 825–837. doi:10.2973/​dsdp.proc.78b.117.1984

Lever, M.A., Rouxel, O., Alt, J.C., Shimizu, N., Ono, S., Coggon, R.M., Shanks, W.C., III, Laphan, L., Elvert, M., Prieto-Mollar, X., Hinrichs, K.-U., Inagaki, F., and Teske, A., 2013. Evidence for microbial carbon and sulfur cycling in deeply buried ridge flank basalt. Science, 339(6125):1305–1308. doi:10.1126/science.1229240

Orcutt, B.N., Sylvan, J.B., Knab, N.J., and Edwards, K.J., 2011. Microbial ecology of the dark ocean above, at, and below the seafloor. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 75(2):361–422. doi:10.1128/​MMBR.00039-10

Wheat, C.G., Elderfield, H., Mottl, M.J., and Monnin, C., 2000. Chemical composition of basement fluids within an oceanic ridge flank: implications for along-strike and across-strike hydrothermal circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 105(B6):13437–13447. doi:10.1029/2000JB900070

Wheat, C.G., Jannasch, H.W., Kastner, M., Plant, J.N., and DeCarlo, E.H., 2003. Seawater transport and reaction in upper oceanic basaltic basement: chemical data from continuous monitoring of sealed boreholes in a ridge flank environment. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 216(4):549–564. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00549-1

Whitman, W.B., Coleman, D.C., and Wiebe, W.J., 1998. Prokaryotes: the unseen majority. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(12):6578–6583. doi:10.1073/​pnas.95.12.6578