Abels, H.A., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Kruk, R.W., Raffi, I., Turco, E., and Zachariasse, W.J., 2005. Long-period orbital control on middle Miocene global cooling: integrated stratigraphy and astronomical tuning of the Blue Clay Formation on Malta. Paleoceanography, 20(4):PA4012. doi:10.1029/2004PA001129

Amante, C., and Eakins, B.W., 2008. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis: Washington, DC (DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC).

Barker, P.F., 2001. Scotia Sea regional tectonic evolution: implications for mantle flow and palaeocirculation. Earth-Sci. Rev., 55(1–2):1–39. doi:10.1016/S00128252(01)000551

Billups, K., Pälike, H., Channell, J.E.T., Zachos, J.C., and Shackleton, N.J., 2004. Astronomic calibration of the late Oligocene through early Miocene geomagnetic polarity time scale. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 224(1–2):33–44. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.05.004

Bohaty, S.M., Pälike, H., Ridgwell, A., Zachos, J.C., and Lear, C.H., 2008. Timing and significance of a global deep-sea dissolution event during the Eocene–Oligocene transition. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 89(53)(Suppl.):PP41D-1487. (Abstract)

Bohaty, S.M., and Zachos, J.C., 2003. Significant Southern Ocean warming event in the late middle Eocene. Geology, 31(11):1017–1020. doi:10.1130/G19800.1

Bohaty, S.M., Zachos, J.C., Florindo, F., and Delaney, M.L., 2009. Coupled greenhouse warming and deep-sea acidification in the middle Eocene. Paleoceanography, 24(2):PA2207. doi:10.1029/2008PA001676

Coxall, H.K., Wilson, P.A., Pälike, H., Lear, C.H., and Backman, J., 2005. Rapid stepwise onset of Antarctic glaciation and deeper calcite compensation in the Pacific Ocean. Nature (London, U. K.), 433(7021):53–57. doi:10.1038/nature03135

DeConto, R.M., Pollard, D., Wilson, P.A., Pälike, H., Lear, C.H., and Pagani, M., 2008. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation. Nature (London, U. K.), 455(7213):652–656. doi:10.1038/nature07337

Dore, J.E., Lukas, R., Sadler, D.W., and Karl, D.M., 2003. Climate-driven changes to the atmospheric CO2 sink in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature (London, U. K.), 424(6950):754–757. doi:10.1038/nature01885

Dunkley Jones, T., Bown, P.R., Pearson, P.N., Wade, B.S., Coxall, H.K., and Lear, C.H. 2008. Major shifts in calcareous phytoplankton assemblages through the Eocene–Oligocene transition of Tanzania and their implications for low-latitude primary production. Paleoceanography, 23(4):PA4204. doi:10.1029/2008PA001640

Elderfield, H., and Schultz, A., 1996. Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluxes and the chemical composition of the ocean. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 24(1):191–224. doi:10.1146/

Elderfield, H., Yu, J., Anand, P., Kiefer, T., and Nyland, B., 2006. Calibrations for benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca paleothermometry and the carbonate ion hypothesis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 250(3–4):633–649. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.07.041

Engebretson, D.C., Cox, A., and Gordon, R.G., 1985. Relative Motions between Oceanic and Continental Plates in the Pacific Basin. Spec. Pap.—Geol. Soc. Am., 206.

Funakawa, S., Nishi, H., Moore, T.C., and Nigrini, C.A., 2006. Radiolarian faunal turnover and paleoceanographic change around Eocene/Oligocene boundary in the central equatorial Pacific, ODP Leg 199, Holes 1218A, 1219A, and 1220A. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 230(3–4):183–203. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.07.014

Gibbs, S., Shackleton, N.J., and Young, J., 2004. Orbitally forced climate signals in mid-Pliocene nannofossil assemblages. Mar. Micropaleontol., 51(1–2):39–56. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2003.09.002

Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., and Smith, A. (Eds.), 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004: Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press).

Hays, J.D., et al., 1972. Init. Repts. DSDP, 9: Washington, DC (U.S. Govt. Printing Office). doi:10.2973/dsdp.proc.9.1972

Holbourn, A., Kuhnt, W., Schulz, M., and Erlenkeuser, H., 2005. Impacts of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Miocene ice-sheet expansion. Nature (London, U. K.), 438(7067):483–487. doi:10.1038/nature04123

Huber, M., 2002. Straw man 1: a preliminary view of the tropical Pacific from a global coupled climate model simulation of the early Paleogene. In Lyle, M., Wilson, P.A., Janecek, T.R., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–30. doi:10.2973/

Kamikuri, S., Nishi, H., Moore, T.C., Nigrini, C.A., and Motoyama, I., 2005. Radiolarian faunal turnover across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Mar. Micropaleontol., 57(3–4):74–96. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2005.07.004

Kennett, J.P., and Shackleton, N.J., 1976. Oxygen isotopic evidence for the development of the psychrosphere 38 Myr ago. Nature (London, U. K.), 260(5551):513–515. doi:10.1038/260513a0

Knappenberger, M., 2000. Sedimentation rates and Pacific plate motion calculated using seismic cross sections of the Neogene equatorial sediment bulge [M.Sc. thesis]. Boise State Univ., Idaho.

Koppers, A.A.P., Phipps Morgan, J., Morgan, J.W., and Staudigel, H., 2001. Testing the fixed hotspot hypothesis using 40Ar/39Ar age progressions along seamount trails. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 185(3–4):237–252. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00387-3

Lanci, L., Parés, J.M., Channell, J.E.T., and Kent, D.V., 2004. Miocene magnetostratigraphy from equatorial Pacific sediments (ODP Site 1218, Leg 199). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 226(1–2):207–224. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.07.025

Lanci, L., Parés, J.M., Channell, J.E.T., and Kent, D.V., 2005. Oligocene magnetostratigraphy from equatorial Pacific sediments (ODP Sites 1218 and 1219, Leg 199). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 237(3–4):617–634. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.07.004

Lawver, L.A., and Gahagan, L.M., 2003. Evolution of Cenozoic seaways in the circum-Antarctic region. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 198(1–2):11–37. doi:10.1016/S00310182(03)003924

Lear, C.H., Bailey, T.R., Pearson, P.N., Coxall, H.K., and Rosenthal, Y., 2008. Cooling and ice growth across the Eocene–Oligocene transition. Geology, 36(3):251–254. doi:10.1130/G24584A.1

Lear, C.H., Rosenthal, Y., Coxall, H.K., and Wilson, P.A., 2004. Late Eocene to early Miocene ice sheet dynamics and the global carbon cycle. Paleoceanography, 19(4):PA4015. doi:10.1029/2004PA001039

Liu, Z., Pagani, M., Zinniker, D., DeConto, R., Huber, M., Brinkhuis, H., Shah, S.R., Leckie, R.M., and Pearson, A., 2009. Global cooling during the Eocene–Oligocene climate transition. Science, 323(5918):1187–1190. doi:10.1126/science.1166368

Lowenstein, T.K., and Demicco, R.V., 2007. Elevated Eocene atmospheric CO2 and subsequent decline. Science, 313(5795):1928. doi:10.1126/science.1129555

Lyle, M., 2003. Neogene carbonate burial in the Pacific Ocean. Paleoceanography, 18(3):1059. doi:10.1029/2002PA000777

Lyle, M., Gibbs, S., Moore Jr., T.C., and Rea, D.K., 2007. Late Oligocene initiation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: evidence from the South Pacific. Geology, 35:691–694.

Lyle, M., Liberty, L., Moore, T.C., Jr., and Rea, D.K., 2002. Development of a seismic stratigraphy for the Paleogene sedimentary section, central tropical Pacific Ocean. In Lyle, M., Wilson, P.A., Janecek, T.R., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–21. doi:10.2973/

Lyle, M., Olivarez Lyle, A., Backman, J., and Tripati, A., 2005. Biogenic sedimentation in the Eocene equatorial Pacific—the stuttering greenhouse and Eocene carbonate compensation depth. In Lyle, M., Wilson, P.A., Janecek, T.R., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–35. doi:10.2973/

Lyle, M., Wilson, P.A., Janecek, T.R., et al., 2002. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/

Lyle, M.W., Pälike, H., Moore, T.C., Mitchell, N., and Backman, J., 2006. Summary Report of R/V Roger Revelle Site Survey AMAT03 to the IODP Environmental Protection and Safety Panel (EPSP) in Support for Proposal IODP626: Southampton, U.K. (Univ. Southampton).

Miller, K.G., Wright, J.D., and Fairbanks, R.G., 1991. Unlocking the ice house: Oligocene–Miocene oxygen isotopes, eustasy, and margin erosion. J. Geophys. Res., 96(B4):6829–6848. doi:10.1029/90JB02015

Mitchell, N.C., 1998. Modeling Cenozoic sedimentation in the central equatorial Pacific and implications for true polar wander. J. Geophys. Res., [Solid Earth], 103(B8):17749–17766. doi:10.1029/98JB01577

Mitchell, N.C., and Lyle, M.W., 2005. Patchy deposits of Cenozoic pelagic sediments in the central Pacific. Geology, 33(1):49–52. doi:10.1130/G21134.1

Mitchell, N.C., Lyle, M.W., Knappenberger, M.B., and Liberty, L.M., 2003. Lower Miocene to present stratigraphy of the equatorial Pacific sediment bulge and carbonate dissolution anomalies. Paleoceanography, 18(2):1038. doi:10.1029/2002PA000828

Mix, A.C., Tiedemann, R., Blum, P., et al., 2003. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 202: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/

Moore, T.C., Rea, D.K., Lyle, M., and Liberty, L.M., 2002. Equatorial ocean circulation in an extreme warm climate. Paleoceanography, 17(1):1005. doi:10.1029/2000PA000566

Moore, T.C., Jr., 1995. Radiolarian stratigraphy, Leg 138. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 191–232. doi:10.2973/

Moore, T.C., Jr., 2008a. Biogenic silica and chert in the Pacific Ocean. Geology, 36(12):975–978. doi:10.1130/G25057A.1

Moore, T.C., Jr., 2008b. Chert in the Pacific: biogenic silica and hydrothermal circulation. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 261(1–2):87–99. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.01.009

Moore, T.C., Jr., Backman, J., Raffi, I., Nigrini, C., Sanfilippo, A., Pälike, H., and Lyle, M., 2004. Paleogene tropical Pacific: clues to circulation, productivity, and plate motion. Paleoceanography, 19(3):PA3013. doi:10.1029/2003PA000998

Müller, R.D., Roest, W.R., Royer, J.-Y., Gahagan, L.M., and Sclater, J.G., 1997. Digital isochrons of the world's ocean floor. J. Geophys. Res., 102(B2):3211–3214. doi:10.1029/96JB01781

Nigrini, C., Sanfilippo, A., and Moore, T.C., Jr., 2006. Cenozoic radiolarian biostratigraphy: a magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of Cenozoic sequences from ODP Sites 1218, 1219, and 1220, equatorial Pacific. In Wilson, P.A., Lyle, M., and Firth, J.V. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–76. doi:10.2973/

Norris, R.D., and Röhl, U., 1999. Carbon cycling and chronology of climate warming during the Palaeocene/Eocene transition. Nature (London, U. K.), 401(6755):775–778. doi:10.1038/44545

Nunes, F., and Norris, R.D., 2006. Abrupt reversal in ocean overturning during the Palaeocene/Eocene warm period. Nature (London, U. K.), 439(7072):60–63. doi:10.1038/nature04386

Olivarez Lyle, A., and Lyle, M., 2005. Organic carbon and barium in Eocene sediments: possible controls on nutrient recycling in the Eocene equatorial Pacific Ocean. In Wilson, P.A., Lyle, M., and Firth, J.V. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–33. doi:10.2973/

Pagani, M., Arthur, M.A., and Freeman, K.H., 1999. Miocene evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Paleoceanography, 14(3):273–292. doi:10.1029/1999PA900006

Paillard, D., Labeyrie, L., and Yiou, P., 1996. Macintosh program performs time-series analysis. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 77(39):379. doi:10.1029/96EO002590

Pälike, H., Lyle, M.W., Ahagon, N., Raffi, I., Gamage, K., and Zarikian, C.A., 2008. Pacific equatorial age transect. IODP Sci. Prosp., 320/321. doi:10.2204/iodp.sp.320321.2008

Pälike, H., Frazier, J., and Zachos, J.C., 2006a. Extended orbitally forced palaeoclimatic records from the equatorial Atlantic Ceara Rise. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(23–24):3138–3149. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.02.011

Pälike, H., Moore, T., Backman, J., Raffi, I., Lanci, L., Parés, J.M., and Janecek, T., 2005. Integrated stratigraphic correlation and improved composite depth scales for ODP Sites 1218 and 1219. In Wilson, P.A., Lyle, M., and Firth, J.V. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–41. doi:10.2973/

Pälike, H., Norris, R.D., Herrle, J.O., Wilson, P.A., Coxall, H.K., Lear, C.H., Shackleton, N.J., Tripati, A.K., and Wade, B.S., 2006b. The heartbeat of the Oligocene climate system. Science, 314(5807):1894–1898. doi:10.1126/science.1133822

Parés, J.M., and Moore, T.C., 2005. New evidence for the Hawaiian hotspot plume motion since the Eocene. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 237(3–4):951–959. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.06.012

Paul, H.A., Zachos, J.C., Flower, B.P., and Tripati, A., 2000. Orbitally induced climate and geochemical variability across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. Paleoceanography, 15(5):471–485. doi:10.1029/1999PA000443

Pearson, P.N., Ditchfield, P.W., Singano, J., Harcourt-Brown, K.G., Nicholas, C.J., Olsson, R.K., Shackleton, N.J., and Hall, M.A., 2001. Warm tropical sea surface temperatures in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs. Nature (London, U. K.), 413(6855):481–487. doi:10.1038/35097000

Pearson, P.N., McMillan, I.K., Wade, B.S., Dunkley Jones, T., Coxall, H.K., Bown, P.R., and Lear, C.H., 2008. Extinction and environmental change across the Eocene–Oligocene boundary in Tanzania. Geology, 36(2):179–182. doi:10.1130/G24308A.1

Petronotis, K.E., 1991. Paleomagnetic studies of the skewness of Pacific plate marine magnetic anomalies 25–32R: implications for anomalous skewness and the motion of the Pacific plate and hotspots [Ph.D. thesis]. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL.

Petronotis, K.E., Gordon, R.G., and Acton, G.D., 1994. A 57 Ma Pacific plate paleomagnetic pole determined from a skewness analysis of crossings of marine magnetic anomaly 25r. Geophys. J. Int., 118(3):529–554. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1994.tb03983.x

Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), 1995. Proc. ODP, Sci Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/

Pollack, H.N., Hurter, S.J., and Johnson, J.R., 1993. Heat flow from the earth's interior: analysis of the global data set. Rev. Geophys., 31(3):267–280. doi:10.1029/93RG01249

Pribnow, D.F.C., Kinoshita, M., and Stein, C.A., 2000. Thermal Data Collection and Heat Flow Recalculations for ODP Legs 101–180: Hanover, Germany (Inst. Joint Geosci. Res., Inst. Geowiss. Gemeinschaftsauf. [GGA]).

Raffi, I., Backman, J., Fornaciari, E., Pälike, H., Rio, D., Lourens, L., and Hilgen, F., 2006. A review of calcareous nannofossil astrobiochronology encompassing the past 25 million years. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(23–24):3113–3137. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.07.007

Raffi, I., Backman, J., and Pälike, H., 2005. Changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across the Paleocene/Eocene transition from the paleo-equatorial Pacific Ocean. Palaeogeogr., Palaecoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 226(1–2):93–126. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.05.006

Rea, D.K., and Lyle, M.W., 2005. Paleogene calcite compensation depth in the eastern subtropical Pacific: answers and questions. Paleoceanography, 20(1):PA1012. doi:10.1029/2004PA001064

Röhl, U., Ogg, J.G., Geib, T.L., and Wefer, G., 2001. Astronomical calibration of the Danian time scale. In Kroon, D., Norris, R.D., and Klaus, A. (Eds.), Western North Atlantic Paleogene and Cretaceous Paleoceanography. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 183:163–184.

Sager, W.W., and Pringle, M.S., 1988. Mid-Cretaceous to early Tertiary apparent polar wander path of the Pacific plate. J. Geophys. Res., [Solid Earth], 93(B10):11753–11771. doi:10.1029/JB093iB10p11753

Scher, H.D., and Martin, E.E., 2006. Timing and climatic consequences of the opening of Drake Passage. Science, 312(5772):428–430. doi:10.1126/science.1120044

Shackleton, N.J., Hall, M.A., Raffi, I., Tauxe, L., and Zachos, J., 2000. Astronomical calibration age for the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. Geology, 28(5):447–450. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<447:ACAFTO>2.0.CO;2

Sexton, P.F., Wilson, P.A., and Pearson, P.N., 2006. Palaeoecology of late middle Eocene planktic foraminifera and evolutionary implications. Mar. Micropaleontol., 60(1):1–6. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2006.02.006

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2002. Leg 199 summary. In Lyle, M., Wilson, P.A., Janecek, T.R., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–87. doi:10.2973/

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2004. Leg 208 summary. In Zachos, J.C., Kroon, D., Blum, P., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 208: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–112. doi:10.2973/

Spero, H.J., Bijma, J., Lea, D.W., and Bemis, B.E., 1997. Effect of seawater carbonate concentration on foraminiferal carbon and oxygen isotopes. Nature (London, U. K.), 390(6659):497–500. doi:10.1038/37333

Steiger, T.H., 2006. Biogenic sedimentology of radiolarian assemblages in a middle Eocene diatom-rich unit from the eastern equatorial Pacific: ODP Leg 199, Site 1219. In Wilson, P.A., Lyle, M., and Firth, J.V. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results,199: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–19. doi:10.2973/

Tarduno, J.A., Duncan, R.A., Scholl, D.W., Cottrell, R.D., Steinberger, B., Thordarson, T., Kerr, B.C., Neal, C.R., Frey, F.A., Torii, M., and Carvallo, C., 2003. The Emperor Seamounts: southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot plume in Earth's mantle. Science, 301(5636):1064–1069. doi:10.1126/science.1086442

van Andel, T.H., 1975. Mesozoic/Cenozoic calcite compensation depth and the global distribution of calcareous sediments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 26(2):187–194. doi:10.1016/0012821X(75)900862

Wade, B.S., and Bown, P.R., 2006. Calcareous nannofossils in extreme environments: the Messinian salinity crisis, Polemi Basin, Cyprus. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 233(3–4):271–286. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.10.007

Wade, B.S., Berggren, W.A., and Olsson, R.K., 2007. The biostratigraphy and paleobiology of Oligocene planktonic foraminifera from the equatorial Pacific Ocean (ODP Site 1218). Mar. Micropaleontol., 62(3):167–179. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2006.08.005

Wade, B.S., and Pälike, H., 2004. Oligocene climate dynamics. Paleoceanography, 19(4)PA4019. doi:10.1029/2004PA001042

Wei, W., and Wise, S.W., Jr., 1989. Paleogene calcareous nannofossil magnetobiochronology: results from South Atlantic DSDP Site 516. Mar. Micropaleontol., 14(1–3):119–152. doi:10.1016/03778398(89)900340

Zachos, J.C., Dickens, G.R., and Zeebe, R.E., 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature (London, U. K.), 451(7176):279–283. doi:10.1038/nature06588

Zachos, J.C., Flower, B.P., and Paul, H., 1997. Orbitally paced climate oscillations across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. Nature (London, U. K.), 388(6642):567–570. doi:10.1038/41528

Zachos, J.C., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., and Billups, K., 2001a. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292(5517):686–693. doi:10.1126/science.1059412

Zachos, J.C., Quinn, T.M., and Salamy, K.A., 1996. High-resolution (104 years) deep-sea foraminiferal stable isotope records of the Eocene–Oligocene climate transition. Paleoceanography, 11(3):251–266. doi:10.1029/96PA00571

Zachos, J.C., Shackleton, N.J., Revenaugh, J.S., Pälike, H., and Flower, B.P., 2001b. Climate response to orbital forcing across the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. Science, 292(5515):274–278. doi:10.1126/science.1058288

Zeebe, R.E., and Wolf-Gladrow, D.A., 2001. CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes: Amsterdam (Elsevier).