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During the early Pliocene (~5 Ma), subsurface temperatures at Site U1338 (Fig. F2) were ~4.5°C warmer than the modern temperature (17.2°C). Subsurface temperatures steeply cooled by ~4°C between 4.0 and 4.8 Ma and gradually cooled an additional ~0.5°C toward the present day. Figure F3 shows smoothed, locally weighted (±10%) least-squares subsurface temperatures from Site U1338 and ODP Leg 138 (110°W) Sites 848, 849, and 853. Nonsmoothed records for Sites 848, 849, and 853 can be found in Ford et al. (2012). Smoothed records are shown here for ease of comparison to show the regional cooling pattern throughout the eastern equatorial Pacific.