Pecher, I.A., Barnes, P.M., LeVay, L.J., and the Expedition 372A Scientists
International Ocean Discovery Program
This publication was prepared by the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) as an account of work performed under the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). Funding for IODP is provided by the following international partners:
- National Science Foundation (NSF), United States
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan
- European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD)
- Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), People’s Republic of China
- Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM)
- Australia-New Zealand IODP Consortium (ANZIC)
- Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), India
- Coordination for Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Brazil
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the participating agencies, TAMU, or Texas A&M Research Foundation.
The bulk of the shipboard-collected core data from this expedition is accessible at http://iodp.tamu.edu/database/index.html. If you cannot access this site or need additional data, please contact Data Librarian, International Ocean Discovery Program JOIDES Resolution Science Operator, Texas A&M University, 1000 Discovery Drive, College Station TX 77845-9547, USA. Tel: (979) 845-8495; Fax: (979) 458-1617; Email: email@example.com.
A complete set of the logging data collected during the expedition is available at http://mlp.ldeo.columbia.edu/logdb/scientific_ocean_drilling. If you have problems downloading the data, wish to receive additional logging data, or have questions regarding the data, please contact Database Administrator, Borehole Research Group, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W, Palisades NY 10964, USA. Tel: (845) 365-8343; Fax: (845) 365-3182; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cover photographs show (top left) rig floor crew preparing logging-while-drilling tools for deployment, (top right) resistivity bit image and coherence velocity, and (bottom) gas hydrate identified using infrared imaging. Photo credit: David McNamara and IODP JRSO.
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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction are permitted, provided the original author and source are credited.
Examples of how to cite this volume or part of this volume are available at http://publications.iodp.org/proceedings/372A/372Atitle.html#bib.
Visual core descriptions (VCDs) are presented in PDF files for each site. Smear slides and/or thin sections are presented in PDF and/or CSV files for each site and/or hole (CSV files are available in the CORES directory). The entire set of core images in PDF is available in the IMAGES directory.
Supplementary material for the Volume 372A expedition reports includes DESClogik workbooks and downhole temperature dual pressure probe data in Microsoft Excel format. A full list of directories can be found in SUPP_MAT in the volume zip folder or on the Supplementary material for Volume 372A expedition reports web page.
Data report: clay mineral assemblages within and beneath the Tuaheni Landslide Complex, IODP Expedition 372A Site U1517, offshore New Zealand
Michael B. Underwood and Brandon Dugan
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A site map showing the drilling locations for this expedition and maps showing the drilling locations of all International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions, produced using QGIS (http://www.qgis.org), and all Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) expeditions, produced using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) of Paul Wessel and Walter H.F. Smith (http://gmt.soest.hawaii.edu), are available in PDF.
We are very grateful to the entire teams of International Ocean Discover Program (IODP) Expeditions 372 and 375 for the smooth coordination between various Expedition 372 objectives. This Proceedings volume summarizes results from Expedition 372 Site U1517 concerning the role of gas hydrates in slow deformation at the Tuaheni Landslide Complex. Expedition 372 also included logging while drilling in preparation for Expedition 375. We acknowledge the important role of the JOIDES Resolution Facility Board in supporting and coordinating the complex operations of Expedition 372.
We would like to thank staff and crew aboard the R/V JOIDES Resolution for their skills, enthusiasm, and professionalism, which were pivotal for successful operations. We also acknowledge the significant efforts in coordinating and planning by many IODP staff leading up to the expedition, most notably, Leah LeVay, Katerina Petronotis, and Kevin Grigar. We wish to acknowledge support of the temperature dual pressure probe (T2P) by the Jackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas (USA) and the UT GeoFluids Consortium, in particular Peter Polito. We are grateful for the enthusiasm of Schlumberger’s shipboard logging team, David Pedulla, Liam Warda, and Lachlan Douglass, in logging the unusually shallow, by industry standards, Expedition 372 targets. We wish to thank the captains, crews, and scientists of the R/V Tangaroa Voyages TAN1114 and TAN1404 and R/V Sonne Voyage SO-247, which collected most of the site survey data.
IODP drilling at the Tuaheni Landslide Complex was the culmination of a number of research initiatives. We particularly acknowledge Joshu Mountjoy for leading studies into deformation of this landslide system for more than a decade. Selection of Site U1517 was underpinned by numerous seismic imaging and multibeam bathymetric expeditions led by scientists from New Zealand and Germany. We gratefully acknowledge Gareth Crutchley’s processing of our 3-D P-Cable site survey data set and Joshu Mountjoy, Phil Barnes, Stuart Henrys, Sebastian Krastel, Stephanie Koch, Anke Dannowski, Andreia Plaza-Faverola, Steve Wilcox, John Mitchell, and Susi Woelz for their various contributions to seismic and bathymetric acquisition, processing, and interpretations of the data sets that were critical for drill site characterization and safety evaluation. Remotely operated Meeresboden-Bohrgerät 200 (MeBo) drilling during Sonne Voyage SO-247 led by Katrin Huhn and Nina Kukowski greatly facilitated site selection. We thank the Australia-New Zealand IODP Consortium for organizing the IODP Southwest Pacific Ocean Workshop in 2012, which was crucial for proposal development. We are grateful to Stuart Henrys and Mitch Malone for their immense efforts in tackling environmental protection regulations and obtaining the necessary clearances for research in New Zealand waters.
We wish to thank the funding agencies that supported acquisition and analysis of site survey and other relevant data. Crown Minerals (now New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals) commissioned the O5CM seismic survey. Land Information New Zealand’s Ocean Survey 20/20 program supported Tangaroa Voyage TAN1114. Tangaroa Voyage TAN1404 was supported by National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research internal funds, GNS Science internal funds, and German Science Foundation projects (KR2222/18; Bl 404/7-1). Funding sources for Sonne Voyage SO-247 included the German Ministry of Education and Research (03G0247A; 03G0247B) and the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) (OCE-1557519). Key funding for data analysis was provided by the New Zealand Marsden Fund (14-NIW-008) and the Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (C05X0908). The NSF supported initial development of the T2P (OCE-0351085).
The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) represents the latest incarnation of almost five decades of scientific ocean drilling excellence and is generally accepted as the most successful international collaboration in the history of the Earth sciences. IODP builds seamlessly on the accomplishments of previous phases: the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The 2013–2023 IODP Science Plan (Illuminating Earth’s Past, Present, and Future) defines four themes and thirteen challenges for this decade of scientific ocean drilling that are both of fundamental importance in understanding how the Earth works and of significant relevance to society as the Earth changes, at least in part in response to anthropogenic forcing. This phase of IODP represents a renewed level of international collaboration in bringing diverse drilling platforms and strategies to increasing our understanding of climate and ocean change, the deep biosphere and evolution of ecosystems, connections between Earth’s deep processes and surface manifestations, and geologically induced hazards on human timeframes.
The Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program presents the scientific and engineering results of IODP drilling projects, expedition by expedition. As in the preceding Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, expeditions in the new IODP are conducted by three implementing organizations, each providing a different drilling capability. These are the US Implementing Organization (USIO; through September 2014) and the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO; as of October 2014), providing the leased commercial vessel JOIDES Resolution for riserless drilling operations; JAMSTEC’s Center for Deep Earth Exploration (CDEX), providing the drillship Chikyu for riser and occasional riserless operations; and the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO), providing “mission-specific” platforms (MSPs) for expeditions that extend the IODP operational range where neither drillship is suitable, for example, in polar environments and in shallow waters. Scheduling decisions for each capability are made by three independent Facility Boards, each of which includes scientists, operators, and platform funding partners: the JOIDES Resolution Facility Board (JRFB), Chikyu IODP Board (CIB), and ECORD Facility Board (EFB). At the beginning of the new IODP, the three Facility Boards agreed to utilize Publication Services at the USIO and now the JRSO for production of all expedition Proceedings volumes and reports.
The new IODP differs from prior scientific ocean drilling programs in that it has neither a central management organization nor commingled funding for program-wide activities. Yet this phase of IODP retains a fundamental integrative structural element: a “bottom-up” evaluation of all proposals for drilling expeditions by a single advisory structure composed of scientists representing all international program partners. International scientists may submit drilling proposals to the Science Support Office; all submitted proposals are then evaluated by a Science Evaluation Panel in the context of the Science Plan.
The new IODP also has a second internationally integrative level for high-level discussion and consensus-building: the IODP Forum. The Forum is charged with assessing program-wide progress toward achieving the Science Plan. At present, IODP involves 26 international financial partners, including the United States, Japan, an Australia/New Zealand consortium (ANZIC), Brazil, China, India, South Korea, and the eighteen members of ECORD (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). This enhanced membership in the new IODP represents a remarkable level of international collaboration that remains one of the greatest ongoing strengths of scientific ocean drilling.
James A. Austin Jr.
Chair, IODP Forum
Reviewers for this volume
Expedition 372A participants*
Morgane M.Y. Brunet
MARUM-Center for Marine Environmental Sciences
University of Bremen
Present affiliation (1 January 2019):
University of Rennes 1
Department of Geology and Geological Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
Martin P. Crundwell†
UCD School of Earth Sciences
University College Dublin
Present affiliation (1 February 2019):
School of Environment and Technology
University of Brighton
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences/Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute
University of Tokyo
Present affiliation (18 April 2019):
Marine Geology Research Group
Geological Survey of Japan
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
College of Earth Science
Guilin University of Technology
Karina S. Machado
Production Engineering Department
Federal University of Paraná
David D. McNamara
Physical Properties Specialist/Downhole Measurements
Earth and Ocean Sciences
School of Natural Sciences
National University of Ireland, Galway
Present affiliation (27 June 2019):
Department of Earth, Ocean, and Environmental Sciences
University of Liverpool
Present affiliation (1 July 2018):
Department of Earth Sciences
Present affiliation (2 April 2019):
School of Marine Resources and Environment
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
Physical Properties Specialist/Downhole Measurements
Department of Earth Sciences
University of Oxford
Present affiliation (1 July 2018):
Shell Global Solutions International, B.V.
Katerina E. Petronotis†
Claire L. Shepherd†
Michael B. Underwood†
Adam D. Woodhouse†*Affiliations at time of expedition, except where updated by participants.
†Sailed Expedition 375.
IODP Publication Services staff**At time of publication.
Please see the combined Volumes 372A and 372B/375 expedition-related bibliography at http://publications.iodp.org/proceedings/372B_375/372B375title.html#bib.
*The Expedition-related bibliography is continually updated online. Please send updates to PubCrd@iodp.tamu.edu.