Alt, J.C., France-Lanord, C., Floyd, P.A., Castillo, P., and Galy, A., 1992. Low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of Jurassic ocean crust, Site 801. In Larson, R.L., Lancelot, Y., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 129: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 415–427. doi:10.2973/​

Anderson, R.N., and Skilbeck, J.N., 1981. Oceanic heat flow. In Emiliani, C. (Ed.), The Sea (Vol. 7): The Oceanic Lithosphere: New York (Wiley), 489–524.

Bach, W., and Edwards, K.J., 2003. Iron and sulfide oxidation within the basaltic ocean crust: implications for chemolithoautotrophic microbial biomass production. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67(20):3871–3887. doi:10.1016/​S0016-7037(03)00304-1

Barr, S.R., Révillon, S., Brewer, T.S., Harvey, P.K., and Tarney, J., 2002. Determining the inputs to the Mariana Subduction Factory: using core-log integration to reconstruct basement lithology at ODP Hole 801C. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 3(11):8901. doi:10.1029/​2001GC000255

Behrenfeld, M.J., and Falkowski, P.G., 1997. Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnol. Oceanogr., 42(1):1–20.

Blair, C.C., D’Hondt, S., Spivack, A.J., and Kingsley, R.H., 2007. Radiolytic hydrogen and microbial respiration in subsurface sediments. Astrobiology, 7(6):951–970. doi:10.1089/​ast.2007.0150

Broecker, W.S., 1982. Ocean chemistry during glacial time. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 46(10):1689–1705. doi:10.1016/​0016-7037(82)90110-7

Cowen, J.P., Giovannoni, S.J., Kenig, F., Johnson, H.P., Butterfield, D., Rappé, M.S., Hutnak, M., and Lam, P., 2003. Fluids from aging ocean crust that support microbial life. Science, 299(5603):120–123. doi:10.1126/​science.1075653

Debierne, A., 1909. Radioactivitié: sur la decomposition de l'eau par les sel de radium. C. R. Acad. Sci., 148:703–705.

D’Hondt, S., 2005. Consequences of the Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction for marine ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 36(1):295–317. doi:10.1146/​annurev.ecolsys.35.021103.105715

D’Hondt, S., Jørgensen, B.B., Miller, D.J., Batzke, A., Blake, R., Cragg, B.A., Cypionka, H., Dickens, G.R., Ferdelman, T., Hinrichs, K.-U., Holm, N.G., Mitterer, R., Spivack, A., Wang, G., Bekins, B., Engelen, B., Ford, K., Gettemy, G., Rutherford, S.D., Sass, H., Skilbeck, C.G., Aiello, I.W., Guerin, G., House, C.H., Inagaki, F., Meister, P., Naehr, T., Niitsuma, S., Parkes, R.J., Schippers, A., Smith, D.C., Teske, A., Wiegel, J., Naranjo Padillo, C., and Solis Acosta, J.L., 2004. Distributions of microbial activities in deep subseafloor sediments. Science, 306(5705):2216–2221. doi:10.1126/​science.1101155

D’Hondt, S., Rutherford, S., and Spivack., A.J., 2002. Metabolic activity of the subsurface life in deep-sea sediments. Science, 295(5562):2067–2070. doi:10.1126/​science.1064878

D’Hondt, S., Spivack, A.J., Pockalny, R., Ferdelman, T.G., Fischer, J.P., Kallmeyer, J., Abrams, L.J., Smith, D.C., Graham, D., Hasiuk, F., Schrum, H., and Stancine, A.M., 2009. Subseafloor sedimentary life in the South Pacific Gyre. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 106(28):11651–11656. doi:10.1073/​pnas.0811793106

D’Hondt, S.L., Jørgensen, B.B., Miller, D.J., et al., 2003. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 201: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/​

D’Hondt, S., Inagaki, F., and Alvarez Zarikian, C., 2010. South Pacific Gyre Microbiology. IODP Sci. Prosp., 329. doi:10.2204/​iodp.sp.329.2010

Durbin, A.M., and Teske, A., 2010. Sediment-associated microdiversity within the Marine Group I Crenarchaeota. Environ. Microbiol. Rep., 2(5):693–703. doi:10.1111/​j.1758-2229.2010.00163.x

Edwards, K.J., Rogers, D.R., Wirsen, C.O., and McCollom, T.M., 2003. Isolation and characterization of novel psychrophilic, neutrophilic, Fe-oxidizing, chemolithoauto-trophic alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria from the Deep Sea. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(5):2906–2913. doi:10.1128/​AEM.69.5.2906-2913.2003

Fischer, J.P., Ferdelman, T.G., D’Hondt, S., Røy, H., and Wenzhöfer, F., 2009. Oxygen penetration deep into the sediment of the South Pacific gyre. Biogeosciences, 6:1467–1478.​6/​1467/​2009/​bg-6-1467-2009.pdf

Fisher, A.T., and Becker, K., 2000. Channelized fluid flow in oceanic crust reconciles heat-flow and permeability data. Nature (London, U. K.), 403(6765):71–74. doi:10.1038/​47463

Fisher, A.T., and Von Herzen, R.P., 2005. Models of hydrothermal circulation within 106 Ma seafloor: constraints on the vigor of fluid circulation and crustal properties, below the Madeira Abyssal Plain. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 6(11):Q11001. doi:10.1029/​2005GC001013

Fisk, M.R., Giovannoni, S.J., and Thorseth, I.H., 1998. Alteration of oceanic volcanic glass: textural evidence of microbial activity. Science, 281(5379):978–980. doi:10.1126/​science.281.5379.978

Furnes, H., and Staudigel, H., 1999. Biological mediation in ocean crust alteration: how deep is the deep biosphere? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 166(3–4):97–103. doi:10.1016/​S0012-821X(99)00005-9

Gallahan, W.E., and Duncan, R.A., 1994. Spatial and temporal variability in crystallization of celadonites with the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus: implications for low-temperature alteration of the oceanic crust. J. Geophys. Res., [Solid Earth], 99(B2):3147–3161. doi:10.1029/​93JB02221

Gieskes, J.M., and Boulègue, J., 1986. Interstitial water studies, Leg 92. In Leinen, M., Rea, D.K., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 92: Washington, DC (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 423–429. doi:10.2973/​dsdp.proc.92.124.1986

Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., and Smith, A. (Eds.), 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004: Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press).​uk/​catalogue/​catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521781428

Hauff, F., Hoernle, K., and Schmidt, A., 2003. Sr-Nd-Pb composition of Mesozoic Pacific oceanic crust (Site 1149 and 801, ODP Leg 185): implications for alteration of ocean crust and the input into the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 4(8):8913. doi:10.1029/​2002GC000421

Inagaki, F., Nunoura, T., Nakagawa, S., Teske, A., Lever, M., Lauer, A., Suzuki, M., Takai, K., Delwiche, M., Colwell, F.S., Nealson, K.H., Horikoshi, K., D’Hondt, S., and Jørgensen, B.B., 2006. Biogeographical distribution and diversity of microbes in methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments on the Pacific Ocean margin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 103(8):2815–2820. doi:10.1073/​pnas.0511033103

Jacobson, R.S., 1992. Impact of crustal evolution on changes of the seismic properties of the uppermost ocean crust. Rev. Geophys., 30(1):23–42. doi:10.1029/​91RG02811

Jahnke, R.A., 1996. The global ocean flux of particulate organic carbon: areal distribution and magnitude. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10(1):71–88. doi:10.1029/​95GB03525

Jarrard, R.D., Abrams, L.J., Pockalny, R.A., Larson, R.L., and Hirono, T., 2001. Physical properties of upper oceanic crust: ODP Hole 801C and the waning of hydrothermal circulation. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 82(47)(Suppl.):V21C-0980. (Abstract)​meetings/​fm01/​waisfm01.html

Kelley, K.A., Plank, T., Ludden, J., and Staudigel, H., 2003. Composition of altered oceanic crust at ODP Sites 801 and 1149. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 4(6)8910. doi:10.1029/​2002GC000435

Koppers, A.A.P., Staudigel, H., and Duncan, R.A., 2003. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar dating of the oldest oceanic basement basalts in the western Pacific basin. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 4(11):8914. doi:10.1029/​2003GC000574

Larson, R.L., and Olson, P., 1991. Mantle plumes control magnetic reversal frequency. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 107(3–4):437–447. doi:10.1016/​0012-821X(91)90091-U

Larson, R.L., Pockalny, R.A., Viso, R.F., Erba, E., Abrams, L.J., Luyendyk, B.P., Stock, J.M., and Clayton, R.W., 2002. Mid-Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Tongareva triple junction in the southwestern Pacific Basin. Geology, 30(1):67–70. doi:10.1130/​0091-7613(2002)030<0067:MCTEOT>2.0.CO;2

Laverne, C., Belarouchi, A., and Honnorez, J., 1996. Alteration mineralogy and chemistry of the upper oceanic crust from Hole 896A, Costa Rica rift. In Alt, J.C., Kinoshita, H., Stokking, L.B., and Michael, P.J. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 148: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 151–170. doi:10.2973/​

Leinen, M., Rea, D.K., et al., 1986. Init. Repts. DSDP, 92: Washington, DC (U.S. Govt. Printing Office). doi:10.2973/​dsdp.proc.92.1986

Lin, L.-H., Hall, J., Lippmann-Pipke, J., Ward, J.A., Sherwood Lollar, B., DeFlaun, M., Rothmel, R., Moser, D., Gihring, T.M., Mislowack, B., and Onstott, T.C., 2005. Radiolytic H2 in continental crust: nuclear power for deep subsurface microbial communities. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 6(7):Q07003. doi:10.1029/​2004GC000907

Lin, L.-H., Slater, G.F., Sherwood Lollar, B., Lacrampe-Couloume, G., and Onstott, T.C., 2005. The yield and isotopic composition of radiolytic H2, a potential energy source for the deep subsurface biosphere. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69(4):893–903. doi:10.1016/​j.gca.2004.07.032

Lipp, J.S., and Hinrichs, K.-U., 2009. Structural diversity and fate of intact polar lipids in marine sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73(22):6816–6833. doi:10.1016/​j.gca.2009.08.003

Loper, D.E., and McCartney, K., 1986. Mantle plumes and the periodicity of magnetic field reversals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 13(13):1525–1528. doi:10.1029/​GL013i013p01525

Menard, H.W., Natland, J.H., Jordan, T.H., Orcutt, J.A., et al., 1987. Init. Repts. DSDP, 91: Washington, DC (U.S. Govt. Printing Office). doi:10.2973/​dsdp.proc.91.1987

Morel, A., Gentili, B., Claustre, H., Babin, M., Bricaud, A., Ras, J., and Tiéche, F., 2007. Optical properties of the “clearest” natural waters. Limnol. Oceanogr., 52(1):217–229.

Ocean Studies Board and Earth and Life Studies, 2003. Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century: Implementation of a Network of Ocean Observatories: Washington, DC (National Academies Press).​openbook.php?isbn=0309089905

Parkes, R.J., Cragg, B.A., and Wellsbury, P., 2000. Recent studies on bacterial populations and processes in subseafloor sediments: a review. Hydrogeol. J., 8(1):11–28. doi:10.1007/​PL00010971

Parsons, B., and Sclater, J.G., 1977. An analysis of the variation of ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow with age. J. Geophys. Res., [Solid Earth], 82:803–827. doi:10.1029/​JB082i005p00803

Pedersen, K., 1996. Microbial life in granite rock [presented at the 1996 International Symposium on Subsurface Microbiology (ISSN-96), Davos, Switzerland, 15–21 September 1996].

Pick, T., and Tauxe, L., 1993. Geomagnetic paleointensities during the Cretaceous normal superchron measured using submarine basaltic glass. Nature (London, U. K.), 366(6452):238–242. doi:10.1038/​366238a0

Plank, T., and Langmuir, C.H., 1998. The chemical composition of subducting sediment and its consequences for the crust and mantle. Chem. Geol., 145(3–4):325–394. doi:10.1016/​S0009-2541(97)00150-2

Pockalny, R.A, and Larson, R.L., 2003. Implications for crustal accretion at fast spreading ridges from observations in Jurassic oceanic crust in the western Pacific. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 4(1):8903. doi:10.1029/​2001GC000274

Révillon, S., Barr, S.R., Brewer, T.S., Harvey, P.K., and Tarney, J., 2002. An alternative approach using integrated gamma-ray and geochemical data to estimate the inputs to subduction zones from ODP Leg 185, Site 801. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 3(12):8902. doi:10.1029/​2002GC000344

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2000. Site 1149. In Plank, T., Ludden, J.N., Escutia, C., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 185: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–190. doi:10.2973/​

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2003. Explanatory notes. In D’Hondt, S.L., Jørgensen, B.B., Miller, D.J., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 201: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–103. doi:10.2973/​

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2007. Site reports for South Pacific Gyre Expedition KNOX-02RR (R/V Roger Revelle, 12/06–1/07).

Smith, W.H.F., and Sandwell, D.T., 1997. Global sea floor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277(5334):1956–1962. doi:10.1126/​science.277.5334.1956

Sørensen, K.B., Lauer, A., and Teske, A., 2004. Archaeal phylotypes in a metal-rich and low-activity deep subsurface sediment of the Peru Basin, ODP Leg 201, Site 1231. Geobiology, 2(3):151–161. doi:10.1111/​j.1472-4677.2004.00028.x

Staudigel, H., Yayanos, A., Chastain, R., Davies, G., Verdurmen, E.A.T., Schiffman, P., Bourcier, R., and De Baar, H., 1998. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 164(1–2):233–244. doi:10.1016/​S0012-821X(98)00207-6

Stein, C.A., and Stein, S., 1994. Constraints on hydrothermal heat flux through the oceanic lithosphere from global heat flow. J. Geophys. Res., [Solid Earth], 99(B2):3081–3095. doi:10.1029/​93JB02222

Tarduno, J.A., Cottrell, R.D., and Smirnov, A.V., 2001. High geomagnetic intensity during the mid-Cretaceous from Thellier analyses of single plagioclase crystals. Science, 291(5509):1779–1783. doi:10.1126/​science.1057519

Taylor, B., 2006. The single largest oceanic plateau: Ontong Java–Manihiki–Hikurangi. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 241(3–4):372–380. doi:10.1016/​j.epsl.2005.11.049

Teagle, D.A.H., Alt, J.C., Bach, W., Halliday, A.N., and Erzinger, J., 1996. Alteration of upper ocean crust in a ridge-flank hydrothermal upflow zone: mineral, chemical, and isotopic constraints from Hole 896A. In Alt, J.C., Kinoshita, H., Stokking, L.B., and Michael, P.J. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 148: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 119–150. doi:10.2973/​

Teagle, D.A.H., Alt, J.C., Umino, S., Miyashita, S., Banerjee, N.R., Wilson, D.S., and Expedition 309/312 Scientists, 2006. Proc. IODP, 309/312: Washington, DC (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). doi:10.2204/​iodp.proc.309312.2006

Von Herzen, R.P., 2004. Geothermal evidence for continuing hydrothermal circulation in older (>60 Ma) ocean crust. In Davis, E.E., and Elderfield, H. (Eds.) Hydrogeology of the Oceanic Lithosphere: Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press), 414–450.

Whitman, W.B., Coleman, D.C., and Wiebe, W.J., 1998. Prokaryotes: the unseen majority. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 95(12):6578–6583. doi:10.1073/​pnas.95.12.6578