Aitchison, J.C., Ali, J.R., and Davis, A.M., 2007. When and where did India and Asia collide? Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 112(B5):B05423. http://​​10.1029/​2006JB004706

Alizai, A., Hillier, S., Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., Hurst, A., VanLaningham, S., and Macklin, M., 2012. Clay mineral variations in Holocene terrestrial sediments from the Indus Basin. Quaternary Research, 77(3):368–381.​10.1016/​j.yqres.2012.01.008

An, Z., Kutzbach, J.E., Prell, W.L., and Porter, S.C., 2001. Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalaya–Tibetan Plateau since late Miocene times. Nature, 411(6833):62–66.​10.1038/​35075035

Armstrong, H.A., and Allen, M.B., 2011. Shifts in the intertropical convergence zone, Himalayan exhumation, and late Cenozoic climate. Geology, 39(1):11–14.​10.1130/​G31005.1

Baksi, A.K., 1994. Geochronological studies on whole-rock basalts, Deccan Traps, India: evaluation of the timing of volcanism relative to the K-T boundary. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 121(1–2):43–56.​10.1016/​0012-821X(94)90030-2

Bernard, A., and Munschy, M., 2000. Were the Mascarene and Laxmi Basins (western Indian Ocean) formed at the same spreading centre? Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Serie IIa: Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes, 330(11):777–783. [French with English abstract]​10.1016/​S1251-8050(00)00221-4

Bhattacharya, G.C., Chaubey, A.K., Murty, G.P.S., Srinivas, K., Sarma, K.V.L.N.S., Subrahmanyam, V., and Krishna, K.S., 1994. Evidence for seafloor spreading in the Laxmi Basin, northeastern Arabian Sea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 125(1–4):211–220.​10.1016/​0012-821X(94)90216-X

Bhushan, R., Dutta, K., and Somayajulu, B.L.K., 2001. Concentrations and burial fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon on the eastern margins of the Arabian Sea. Marine Geology, 178(1–4):95–113.​10.1016/​S0025-3227(01)00179-7

Biswas, S.K., 1987. Regional tectonic framework, structure and evolution of the western marginal basins of India. Tectonophysics, 135(4):307–327.​10.1016/​0040-1951(87)90115-6

Biswas, S.K., and Singh, N.K., 1988. Western continental margin of India and hydrocarbon potential of deep-sea basins. Proceedings of the 7th Offshore Southeast Asia (SEAPEX) Conference: Singapore (Southeast Asia Petroleum Exploration Society), 170–181.

Boillot, G., Beslier, M.O., Krawczyk, C.M., Rappin, D., and Reston, T.J., 1995. The formation of passive margins: constraints from the crustal structure and segmentation of the deep Galicia margin, Spain. In Scrutton, R.A., Stoker, M.S., Shimmield, G.B., and Tudhope, A.W. (Eds.), The Tectonics, Sedimentation and Palaeoceanography of the North Atlantic Region. Geological Society Special Publication, 90(1):71–91.​10.1144/​GSL.SP.1995.090.01.04

Bookhagen, B., Thiede, R.C., and Strecker, M.R., 2005. Late Quaternary intensified monsoon phases control landscape evolution in the northwest Himalaya. Geology, 33(2):149–152.​10.1130/​G20982.1

Boos, W.R., and Kuang, Z., 2010. Dominant control of the South Asian monsoon by orographic insulation versus plateau heating. Nature, 463(7278):218222.​10.1038/​nature08707

Budziak, D., Schneider, R.R., Rostek, F., Müller, P.J., Bard, E., and Wefer, G., 2000. Late Quaternary insolation forcing on total organic carbon and C37 alkenone variations in the Arabian Sea. Paleoceanography, 15(3):307–322.​10.1029/​1999PA000433

Burbank, D.W., Beck, R.A., and Mulder, T., 1996. The Himalayan foreland basin. In Yin, A., and Harrison, T.M. (Eds.), The Tectonic Evolution of Asia: Cambridge (Cambridge University Press), 149–188.

Calvès, G., Clift, P.D., and Inam, A., 2008. Anomalous subsidence on the rifted volcanic margin of Pakistan: no influence from Deccan plume. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 272(12):231239.​10.1016/​j.epsl.2008.04.042

Calvès, G., Schwab, A.M., Huuse, M., Clift, P.D., Gaina, C., Jolley, D., Tabrez, A.R., and Inam, A., 2011. Seismic volcanostratigraphy of the western Indian rifted margin: the pre-Deccan igneous province. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 116(B1):B01101.​10.1029/​2010JB000862

Cane, M.A., and Molnar, P., 2001. Closing of the Indonesian Seaway as a precursor to East African aridification around 3–4 million years ago. Nature, 411(6834):157–162.​10.1038/​35075500

Catlos, E.J., Harrison, T.M., Kohn, M.J., Grove, M., Ryerson, F.J., Manning, C.E., and Upreti, B.N., 2001. Geochronologic and thermobarometric constraints on the evolution of the Main Central Thrust, central Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 106(B8):16177–16204.​10.1029/​2000JB900375

Chaubey, A.K., Dyment, J., Bhattacharya, G.C., Royer, J.-Y., Srinivas, K., and Yatheesh, V., 2002a. Paleogene magnetic isochrons and palaeo-propagators in the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean. In Clift, P.D., Kroon, D., Gaedicke, C., and Craig, J. (Eds.), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region. Geological Society Special Publication, 195(1):7185.​10.1144/​GSL.SP.2002.195.01.05

Chaubey, A.K., Gopala Rao, D., Srinivas, K., Ramprasad, T., Ramana, M.V., and Subrahmanyam, V., 2002b. Analyses of multichannel seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic data along a regional profile across the central-western continental margin of India. Marine Geology, 182(3–4):303–323.​10.1016/​S0025-3227(01)00241-9

Chenet, A.-L., Fluteau, F., Courtillot, V., Gérard, M., and Subbarao, K.V., 2008. Determination of rapid Deccan eruptions across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary using paleomagnetic secular variation: results from a 1200-m-thick section in the Mahabaleshwar escarpment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 113(B4):B04101.​10.1029/​2006JB004635

Clark, M.K., House, M.A., Royden, L.H., Whipple, K.X., Burchfiel, B.C., Zhang, X., and Tang, W., 2005. Late Cenozoic uplift of southeastern Tibet. Geology, 33(6):525528.​10.1130/​G21265.1

Clemens, S.C., and Prell, W.L., 2003. A 350,000 year summer-monsoon multi-proxy stack from the Owen Ridge, northern Arabian Sea. Marine Geology, 201(1–3):35–51.​10.1016/​S0025-3227(03)00207-X

Clift, P.D., 2002. A brief history of the Indus River. In Clift, P.D., Kroon, D., Gaedicke, C., and Craig, J. (Eds.), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region. Geological Society Special Publication, 195(1):237–258.​10.1144/​GSL.SP.2002.195.01.13

Clift, P.D., and Blusztajn, J., 2005. Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago. Nature, 438(7070):1001–1003.​nature04379

Clift, P.D., Campbell, I.H., Pringle, M.S., Carter, A., Zhang, X., Hodges, K.V., Khan, A.A., and Allen, C.M., 2004. Thermochronology of the modern Indus River bedload; new insight into the controls on the marine stratigraphic record. Tectonics, 23(5):TC5013.​10.1029/​2003TC001559

Clift, P.D., Carter, A., Giosan, L., Durcan, J., Duller, G.A.T., Macklin, M.G., Alizai, A., Tabrez, A.R., Danish, M., VanLaningham, S., and Fuller, D.Q., 2012. U-Pb zircon dating evidence for a Pleistocene Sarasvati River and capture of the Yamuna River. Geology, 40(3):211–214.​10.1130/​G32840.1

Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., Henstock, T.J., and Tabrez, A.R., 2014. Sediment storage and reworking on the shelf and in the canyon of the Indus River-Fan system since the Last Glacial Maximum. Basin Research, 26(1):183–202.​10.1111/​bre.12041

Clift, P.D., Hodges, K.V., Heslop, D., Hannigan, R., Long, H.V., and Calves, G., 2008. Correlation of Himalayan exhumation rates and Asian monsoon intensity. Nature Geoscience, 1(12):875–880.​10.1038/​ngeo351

Clift, P.D., and Plumb, R.A., 2008. The Asian Monsoon: Causes, History and Effects: Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).​10.1017/​CBO9780511535833

Clift, P.D., Shimizu, N., Layne, G.D., and Blusztajn, J., 2001. Tracing patterns of erosion and drainage in the Paleogene Himalaya through ion probe Pb isotope analysis of detrital K-feldspars in the Indus Molasse, India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 188(3–4):475491.​S0012-821X(01)00346-6

Collier, J.S., Sansom, V., Ishizuka, O., Taylor, R.N., Minshull, T.A., and Whitmarsh, R.B., 2008. Age of Seychelles–India break-up. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 272(1–2):264–277.​10.1016/​j.epsl.2008.04.045

Courtillot, V., Féraud, G., Maluski, H., Vandamme, D., Moreau, M.G., and Besse, J., 1988. Deccan flood basalts and the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Nature, 333(6176):843–846.​10.1038/​333843a0

Courtillot, V., Gallet, Y., Rocchia, R., Féraud, G., Robin, E., Hofmann, C., Bhandari, N., and Ghevariya, Z.G., 2000. Cosmic markers, 40Ar/39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the KT sections in the Anjar area of the Deccan large igneous province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 182(2):137–156.​10.1016/​S0012-821X(00)00238-7

Curray, J.R., Emmel, F.J., and Moore, D.G., 2003. The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19(10):1191–1223.​10.1016/​S0264-8172(03)00035-7

Curray, J.R., and Moore, D.G., 1982. Growth of the Bengal deep-sea fan and denudation in the Himalayas. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82(3):563–572.​0016-7606(1971)82[563:GOTBDF]2.0.CO;2

Daley, T., and Alam, Z., 2002. Seismic stratigraphy of the offshore Indus Basin. In Clift, P.D., Kroon, D., Gaedicke, C., and Craig, J. (Eds.), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region. Geological Society Special Publication, 195(1):259–271.​10.1144/​GSL.SP.2002.195.01.14

DeCelles, P.G., Gehrels, G.E., Quade, J., and Ojha, T.P., 1998. Eocene–early Miocene foreland basin development and the history of Himalayan thrusting, western and central Nepal. Tectonics, 17(5):741–765.​10.1029/​98TC02598

deMenocal, P., Bloemendal, J., and King, J., 1991. A rock-magnetic record of monsoonal dust deposition to the Arabian Sea: evidence for a shift in the mode of deposition at 2.4 Ma. In Prell, W.L., Niitsuma, N., et al., Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 117: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 389–407.​10.2973/​

Deptuck, M.E., Steffens, G.S., Barton, M., and Pirmez, C., 2003. Architecture and evolution of upper fan channel-belts on the Niger Delta slope and in the Arabian Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 20(68):649676.​10.1016/​j.marpetgeo.2003.01.004

Derry, L.A., and France-Lanord, C., 1997. Himalayan weathering and erosion fluxes: climate and tectonic controls. In Ruddiman, W.F. (Ed.), Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change: New York (Plenum), 289–312.​10.1007/​978-1-4615-5935-1_12

Dewey, J.F., Cande, S., and Pitman, W.C., III, 1989. Tectonic evolution of the India/Eurasia collision zone. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 82(3):717–734.​digbib/​view?pid=egh-001:1989:82::733

Dewey, J.F., Shackleton, R.M., Chang, C., and Sun, Y., 1988. The tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A, 327(1594):379–413.​10.1098/​rsta.1988.0135

Ding, Z.L., Xiong, S.F., Sun, J.M., Yang, S.L., Gu, Z.Y., and Liu, T.S., 1999. Pedostratigraphy and paleomagnetism of a ~7.0 Ma eolian loess-red clay sequence at Lingtai, Loess Plateau, north-central China and the implications for paleomonsoon evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 152(1–2):49–66.​10.1016/​S0031-0182(99)00034-6

Droz, L., and Bellaiche, G., 1991. Seismic facies and geologic evolution of the central portion of the Indus Fan. In Weimer, P., and Link, M.H. (Eds.), Frontiers in Sedimentary Geology (Vol. 4): Seismic Facies and Sedimentary Processes of Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems. Bouma, A.H. (Series Ed.): New York (Springer-Verlag), 383–402.​10.1007/​978-1-4684-8276-8_21

England, P., and Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation: 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 91(B3):3664–3676.​10.1029/​JB091iB03p03664

England, P., and Houseman, G., 1989. Extension during continental convergence, with application to the Tibetan plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 94(B12):17561–17579.​10.1029/​JB094iB12p17561

Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A., and Matter, A., 2003. Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science, 300(5626):1737–1739.​10.1126/​science.1083130

France-Lanord, C., Spiess, V., Molnar, P., and Curray, J.R., 2000. Summary on the Bengal Fan: An Introduction to a Drilling Proposal. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.​pclift/​BengalSummary.pdf

Garzanti, E., Vezzoli, G., Andò, S., Paparella, P., and Clift, P.D., 2005. Petrology of Indus River sands: a key to interpret erosion history of the Western Himalayan syntaxis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 229(3–4):287–302.​10.1016/​j.epsl.2004.11.008

Garzione, C.N., Quade, J., DeCelles, P.G., and English, N.B., 2000. Predicting paleoelevation of Tibet and the Himalaya from δ18O vs. altitude gradients in meteoric water across the Nepal Himalaya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 183(1–2):215–229.​10.1016/​S0012-821X(00)00252-1

Giosan, L., Clift, P.D., Macklin, M.G., Fuller, D.Q., Constantinescu, S., Durcan, J.A., Stevens, T., Duller, G.A.T., Tabrez, A.R., Gangal, K., Adhikari, R., Alizai, A., Filip, F., VanLaningham, S., and Syvitski, J.P.M., 2012. Fluvial landscapes of the Harappan civilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(26):E1688–E1694.​10.1073/​pnas.1112743109

Godin, L., Grujic, D., Law, R.D., and Searle, M.P., 2006. Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones: an introduction. In Law, R.D, Searle, M.P., and Godin, L. (Eds.), Channel Flow, Ductile Extrusion and Exhumation in Continental Collision Zones. Geological Society Special Publication, 268(1):1–23.​10.1144/​GSL.SP.2006.268.01.01

Gopala Rao, D., Ramana, M.V., Bhattacharya, G.C., Subba Raju, L.V., Kamesh Raju, K.A., and Ram Prasad, T., 1992. Marine geophysical studies along a transect across the continental margin off Bombay coast, west of India. In Desai, B.N. (Ed.), Oceanography of the Indian Ocean: New Delhi (Oxford and IBH), 493501.​drs/​handle/2264/3027

Gupta, A.K., Mohan, K., Sarkar, S., Clemens, S.C., Ravindra, R., and Uttam, R.K., 2011. Eastwest similarities and differences in the surface and deep northern Arabian Sea records during the past 21 Kyr. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 301(1–4):75–85.​10.1016/​j.palaeo.2010.12.027

Hahn, D.G., and Manabe, S., 1975. The role of mountains in the South Asian monsoon circulation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 32(8):1515–1541.​10.1175/​1520-0469(1975)032<1515:TROMIT>2.0.CO;2

Harris, N., 2006. The elevation history of the Tibetan Plateau and its implications for the Asian monsoon. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 241(1):4–15.​10.1016/​j.palaeo.2006.07.009

Harris, N., 2007. Channel flow and the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen: a critical review. Journal of the Geological Society, 164(3):511–523.​10.1144/​0016-76492006-133

Haug, G.H., and Tiedemann, R., 1998. Effect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature, 393(6686):673–676.​10.1038/​31447

Heine, C., Müller, R.D., and Gaina, C., 2004. Reconstructing the lost eastern Tethys ocean basin: convergence history of the SE Asian margin and marine gateways. In Clift, P., Kuhnt, W., Wang, P., and Hayes, D. (Eds.), Continent-Ocean Interactions within East Asian Marginal Seas. Geophysical Monograph, 37–54.​10.1029/​149GM03

Held, I.M., 1983. Stationary and quasi-stationary eddies in the extratropical troposphere: theory. In Hoskins, B., and Pearce, R. (Eds.), Large-Scale Dynamic Processes in the Atmosphere: San Diego (Academic Press), 127–168.​bibliography/​related_files/​Held1983_Reduced.pdf

Hodges, K.V., 2006. A synthesis of the channel flow-extrusion hypothesis as developed for the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. In Law, R.D, Searle, M.P., and Godin, L. (Eds.), Channel Flow, Ductile Extrusion and Exhumation in Continental Collision Zones. Geological Society Special Publication, 268(1):71–90.​GSL.SP.2006.268.01.04

Huber, M., and Goldner, A., 2012. Eocene monsoons. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 44:3–23.​j.jseaes.2011.09.014

Kolla, V., and Coumes, F., 1987. Morphology, internal structure, seismic stratigraphy, and sedimentation of Indus Fan. AAPG Bulletin, 71(6):650677.​data/​bulletns/​1986-87/​images/​pg/​00710006/​0650/​06500.pdf

Kolla, V., and Coumes, F., 1990. Extension of structural and tectonic trends from the Indian subcontinent into the eastern Arabian Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 7(2):188–196.​10.1016/0264-8172(90)90041-E

Krishna, K.S., Gopala Rao, D., and Sar, D., 2006. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14º–20ºN), western continental margin of India. Tectonics, 25(1):TC1006.​10.1029/​2004TC001747

Krishna, K.S., Murty, G.P.S., and Gopala Rao, D., 1994. Identification and origin of a subsurface ridge on the continental margin of western India. Marine Geology, 118(3–4):283–290.​0025-3227(94)90088-4

Krishna, K.S., Murty, G.P.S., Srinivas, K., and Gopala Rao, D., 1992. Magnetic studies over the northern extension of the Prathap Ridge complex, eastern Arabian Sea. Geo-Marine Letters, 12(1):7–13.​10.1007/​BF02092102

Kroon, D., Steens, T., and Troelstra, S.R., 1991. Onset of monsoonal related upwelling in the western Arabian Sea as revealed by planktonic foraminifers. In Prell, W.L., Niitsuma, N., et al., Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 117: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 257–263.​10.2973/​

Lunt, D.J., Flecker, R., and Clift, P.D., 2010. The impacts of Tibetan uplift on palaeoclimate proxies. In Clift, P.D., Tada, R., and Zheng, H. (Eds.), Monsoon Evolution and Tectonics—Climate Linkage in Asia. Geological Society Special Publication, 342(1):279–291.​10.1144/​SP342.16

Malod, J.A., Droz, L., Mustafa Kemal, B., and Patriat, B., 1997. Early spreading and continental to oceanic basement transition beneath the Indus deep-sea fan: northeastern Arabian Sea. Marine Geology, 141(1–4):221–235.​10.1016/​S0025-3227(97)00074-1

McHargue, T.R., 1991. Seismic facies, processes, and evolution of Miocene inner fan channels, Indus submarine fan. In Weimer, P., and Link, M.H. (Eds.), Frontiers in Sedimentary Geology (Vol. 4): Seismic Facies and Sedimentary Processes of Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems. Bouma, A.H. (Series Ed.): New York (Springer-Verlag), 403–414.​10.1007/​978-1-4684-8276-8_22

Miles, P.R., and Roest, W.R., 1993. Earliest sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies in the north Arabian Sea and the ocean–continent transition. Geophysical Journal International, 115(3):10251031.​10.1111/​j.1365-246X.1993.tb01507.x

Miles, P.R., Munschy, M., and Ségoufin, J., 1998. Structure and early evolution of the Arabian Sea and East Somali Basin. Geophysical Journal International, 134(3):876–888.​10.1046/​j.1365-246x.1998.00625.x

Minshull, T.A., Lane, C.I., Collier, J.S., and Whitmarsh, R.B., 2008. The relationship between rifting and magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Nature Geoscience, 1(7):463–467.​10.1038/​ngeo228

Molnar, P., Boos, W.R., and Battisti, D.S., 2010. Orographic controls on climate and paleoclimate of Asia: thermal and mechanical roles for the Tibetan Plateau. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 38(1):77–102.​annurev-earth-040809-152456

Molnar, P., England, P., and Martinod, J., 1993. Mantle dynamics, uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Indian monsoon. Reviews of Geophysics, 31(4):357–396.​10.1029/​93RG02030

Molnar, P., and Rajagopalan, B., 2012. Late Miocene upward and outward growth of eastern Tibet and decreasing monsoon rainfall over the northwestern Indian subcontinent since ~10 Ma. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(9):L09702.​10.1029/​2012GL051305

Molnar, P., and Tapponnier, P., 1975. Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: effects of a continental collision: features of recent continental tectonics in Asia can be interpreted as results of the India-Eurasia collision. Science, 189(4201):419–426.​10.1126/​science.189.4201.419

Naini, B.R., 1980. Geological and geophysical study of the continental margin of western India, and the adjoining Arabian Sea including the Indus cone [Ph.D. Thesis]. Columbia University.

Naini, B.R., and Talwani, M., 1982. Structural framework and the evolutionary history of the continental margin of Western India. In Watkins, J.S., and Drake, C.L. (Eds.), Studies in Continental Margin Geology. AAPG Memoir, 167–191.

Najman, Y., 2006. The detrital record of orogenesis: a review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth-Science Reviews, 74(1–2):1–72.​10.1016/​j.earscirev.2005.04.004

Najman, Y., Appel, E., Boudagher-Fadel, M., Bown, P., Carter, A., Garzanti, E., Godin, L., Han, J., Liebke, U., Oliver, G., Parrish, R., and Vezzoli, G., 2010. Timing of India-Asia collision: geological, biostratigraphic, and palaeomagnetic constraints. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 115(B12):B12416.​10.1029/​2010JB007673

Norton, I.O., and Sclater, J.G., 1979. A model for the evolution of the Indian Ocean and the breakup of Gondwanaland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 84(B12):6803–6830.​10.1029/​JB084iB12p06803

Pandey, O.P., Agrawal, P.K., and Negi, J.G., 1996. Evidence of low density sub-crustal underplating beneath western continental region of India and adjacent Arabian Sea: geodynamical considerations. Journal of Geodynamics, 21(4):365377.​10.1016/​0264-3707(95)00036-4

Ponton, C., Giosan, L., Eglinton, T.I., Fuller, D.Q., Johnson, J.E., Kumar, P., and Collett, T.S., 2012. Holocene aridification of India. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(3):L3407.​10.1029/​2011GL050722

Potter, P.E., and Szatmari, P., 2009. Global Miocene tectonics and the modern world. Earth-Science Reviews, 96(4):279–295.​10.1016/​j.earscirev.2009.07.003

Prell, W.L., and Kutzbach, J.E., 1992. Sensitivity of the Indian monsoon to forcing parameters and implications for its evolution. Nature, 360(6405):647–652.​10.1038/​360647a0

Prell, W.L., Murray, D.W., Clemens, S.C., and Anderson, D.M., 1992. Evolution and variability of the Indian Ocean summer monsoon: evidence from the western Arabian Sea drilling program. In Duncan, R.A., Rea, D.K., Kidd, R.B., von Rad, U., and Weissel, J.K. (Eds.), Synthesis of Results from Scientific Drilling in the Indian Ocean. Geophysical Monograph, 70:447–469.​10.1029/​GM070p0447

Qiang, X.K., Li, Z.X., Powell, C.McA., and Zheng, H.B., 2001. Magnetostratigraphic record of the late Miocene onset of the East Asian monsoon and Pliocene uplift of northern Tibet. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 187(1–2):83–93.​10.1016/​S0012-821X(01)00281-3

Radha Krishna, M., Verma, R.K., and Purushotham, A.K., 2002. Lithospheric structure below the eastern Arabian Sea and adjoining west coast of India based on integrated analysis of gravity and seismic data. Marine Geophysical Research, 23(1):25–42.​10.1023/​A:1021288003781

Ramaswamy, G., and Rao, K.L.N., 1980. Geology of the continental shelf of the west coast of India. In Miall, A.D. (Ed.), Facts and Principles of World Petroleum Occurrence. Memoir— Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, 6:801–821.​data/​cspg_sp/​data/​006/​006001/​pdfs/​801.pdf

Ramstein, G., Fluteau, F., Besse, J., and Joussaume, S., 1997. Effect of orogeny, plate motion and land–sea distribution on Eurasian climate change over the past 30 million years. Nature, 386(6627):788–795.​10.1038/​386788a0

Raymo, M.E., and Ruddiman, W.F., 1992. Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate. Nature, 359(6391):117–122.​10.1038/​359117a0

Replumaz, A., and Tapponnier, P., 2003. Reconstruction of the deformed collision zone between India and Asia by backward motion of lithospheric blocks. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 108(B6):2285.​10.1029/​2001JB000661

Rowley, D.B., 1996. Age of initiation of collision between India and Asia: a review of stratigraphic data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 145(1–4):1–13.​10.1016/​S0012-821X(96)00201-4

Rowley, D.B., and Currie, B.S., 2006. Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola Basin, central Tibet. Nature, 439(7077):677–681.​10.1038/​nature04506

Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B.C., and van der Hilst, R.D., 2008. The geological evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Science, 321(5892):1054–1058.​10.1126/​science.1155371

Royer, J.-Y., Chaubey, A.K., Dyment, J., Bhattacharya, G.C., Srinivas, K., Yatheesh, V., and Ramprasad, T., 2002. Paleogene plate tectonic evolution of the Arabian and eastern Somali basins. In Clift, P.D., Kroon, D., Gaedicke, C., and Craig, J. (Eds.), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region. Geological Society Special Publication, 195(1):7–23.​10.1144/​GSL.SP.2002.195.01.02

Schoenbohm, L.M., Burchfiel, B.C., and Chen, L., 2006. Propagation of surface uplift, lower crustal flow, and Cenozoic tectonics of the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Geology, 34(10):813–816.​10.1130/​G22679.1

Self, S., Blake, S., Sharma, K., Widdowson, M., and Sephton, S., 2008. Sulfur and chlorine in Late Cretaceous Deccan magmas and eruptive gas release. Science, 319(5870):1654–1657.​10.1126/​science.1152830

Shipboard Scientific Party, 1974. Site 221. With contribution by R.E. Coleman and N. Hamilton. In Whitmarsh, R.B., Weser, O.E., Ross, D.A., et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 23: Washington (U.S. Government Printing Office), 167–210.​10.2973/​dsdp.proc.23.105.1974

Singh, A.D., Jung, S.J.A., Darling, K., Ganeshram, R., Ivanochko, T., and Kroon, D., 2011. Productivity collapses in the Arabian Sea during glacial cold phases. Paleoceanography, 26(3):PA3210.​10.1029/​2009PA001923

Singh, A.P., 1999. The deep crustal accretion beneath the Laxmi Ridge in the northeastern Arabian Sea: the plume model again. Journal of Geodynamics, 27(4–5):609–622.​10.1016/​S0264-3707(98)00019-2

Singh, A.P., 2002. Impact of Deccan volcanism on deep crustal structure along western part of Indian mainland and adjoining Arabian Sea. Current Science, 82(3):316–325.​Downloads/​article_id_082_03_0316_0325_0.pdf

Skogseid, J., Planke, S., Faleide, J.I., Pedersen, T., Eldholm, O., and Neverdal, F., 2000. NE Atlantic continental rifting and volcanic margin formation. In Nøttvedt, A. (Ed.), Dynamics of the Norwegian Margin. Geological Society Special Publication, 167(1):295–326.​10.1144/​GSL.SP.2000.167.01.12

Storey, M., Mahoney, J.J., Saunders, A.D., Duncan, R.A., Kelley, S.P., and Coffin, M.F., 1995. Timing of hot spot—related volcanism and the breakup of Madagascar and India. Science, 267(5199):852–855.​science.267.5199.852

Subrahmanyam, V., Gopala Rao, D., Ramana, M.V., Krishna, K.S., Murty, G.P.S., and Gangadhara Rao, M., 1995. Structure and tectonics of the southwestern continental margin of India. Tectonophysics, 249(3–4):267–282.​10.1016/​0040-1951(95)00020-N

Talwani, M., and Reif, C., 1998. Laxmi Ridge—a continental sliver in the Arabian Sea. Marine Geophysical Research, 20(4):259–271.​10.1023/​A:1004674909280

Tapponnier, P., Zhiqin, X., Roger, F., Meyer, B., Arnaud, N., Wittlinger, G., and Jingsui, Y., 2001. Oblique stepwise rise and growth of the Tibet Plateau. Science, 294(5547):1671–1677.​10.1126/​science.105978

Tobgay, T., McQuarrie, N., Long, S., Kohn, M.J., and Corrie, S.L., 2012. The age and rate of displacement along the Main Central Thrust in the western Bhutan Himalaya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 319–320:146–158.​10.1016/​j.epsl.2011.12.005

von der Heydt, A., and Dijkstra, H.A., 2006. Effect of ocean gateways on the global ocean circulation in the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Paleoceanography, 21(1):PA1011.​10.1029/​2005PA001149

Wang, B., Clemens, S.C., and Liu, P., 2003. Contrasting the Indian and East Asian monsoons: implications on geologic timescales. Marine Geology, 201(1–3):5–21.​10.1016/​S0025-3227(03)00196-8

Wang, P., Clemens, S., Beaufort, L., Braconnot, P., Ganssen, G., Jian, Z., Kershaw, P., and Sarnthein, M., 2005. Evolution and variability of the Asian monsoon system: state of the art and outstanding issues. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(5–6):595–629.​10.1016/​j.quascirev.2004.10.002

White, R., and McKenzie, D., 1989. Magmatism at rift zones: the generation of volcanic continental margins and flood basalts. Journal of Geophysical Reasearch: Solid Earth, 94(B6):7685–7729.​10.1029/​JB094iB06p07685

Wu, F.-Y., Ji, W.-Q., Wang, J.-G., Liu, C.-Z., Chung, S.-L., and Clift, P.D., 2014. Zircon U–Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on the onset time of India-Asia collision. American Journal of Science, 314(2):548–579.​10.2475/​02.2014.04