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Andersen, C., Koç, N., and Moros, M., 2004. A highly unstable Holocene climate in the subpolar North Atlantic: evidence from diatoms. Quat. Sci. Rev., 23:2155–2166. doi:10.1016/​j.quascirev.2004.08.004

Andruleit, H.A., and Baumann, K.-H., 1998. History of the Last Deglaciation and Holocene in the Nordic seas as revealed by coccolithophore assemblages. Mar. Micropaleontol., 35:179–201. doi:10.1016/​S0377-8398(98)00021-8

Baker, P.A., Gieskes, J.M., and Elderfield, H., 1982. Diagenesis of carbonates in deep-sea sediments—evidence from Sr2+/Ca2+ ratios and interstitial dissolved Sr2+ data. J. Sediment. Petrol., 52:71–82.

Baldauf, J.G., 1987. Biostratigraphic and paleoceanographic interpretation of lower and middle Miocene sediments, Rockall Plateau Region, North Atlantic Ocean. In Ruddiman, W.F., Kidd, R.B., Thomas, E., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 94 (Pt. 2): Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 1033–1043.

Bond, G.C., and Lotti, R., 1995. Iceberg discharges into the North Atlantic on millennial time scales during the last glaciation. Science, 276:1005–1010.

Bond, G.C., Showers, W., Elliot, M., Evans, M., Lotti, R., Hajdas, I., Bonani, G., and Johnson, S., 1999. The North Atlantic’s 1–2 kyr climate rhythm: relation to Heinrich events, Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles and the Little Ice Age. In Clark, P.U., Webb, R.S., and Keigwin, L.D. (Eds.), Mechanisms of Global Climate Change at Millennial Time Scales. Geophys. Monogr., 112:35–58.

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Caulet, J.-P., 1979. Les depots a radiolaires d’age Pliocene superieur a Pleistocene dans l’ocean Indien central: nouvelle zonation biostratigraphique (Radiolarian upper Pliocene–Pleistocene deposits in the central Indian Ocean; new biostratigraphic zonation). Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Ser. C, 43:119–141.

Channell, J.E.T., Hodell, D.A., McManus, J., and Lehman, B., 1998. Orbital modulation of the Earth’s magnetic field intensity. Nature (London, U. K.), 394:464–468. doi:10.1038/​28833

Channell, J.E.T., Sato, T., Kanamatsu, T., Stein, R., Malone, M.J., and the Expedition 303/306 Project Team, 2004. North Atlantic climate. IODP Sci. Prosp., 303/306. doi:10.2204/​iodp.sp.303306.2004

Chapman, M.R., and Shackleton, N.J., 1999. Global ice-volume fluctuations, North Atlantic ice-rafting events, and deep-ocean circulation changes between 130 and 70 ka. Geology, 27:795–798. doi:10.1130/​0091-7613(1999)027<0795:GIVFNA>2.3.CO;2

Davies, T.A., and Laughton, A.S., 1972. Sedimentary processes in the North Atlantic. In Laughton, A.S., Berggren, W.A., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 12: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 905–934.

De Carlo, E.H., 1992. Geochemistry of pore water and sediments recovered from the Exmouth Plateau. In von Rad, U., Haq, B.U., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 122: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 295–308.

Flower, B.P., Oppo, D.W., McManus, J.F., Venz, K.A., Hodell, D.A., and Cullen, J., 2000. North Atlantic intermediate to deep water circulation and chemical stratification during the past 1 Myr. Paleoceanography, 15:388–403. doi:10.1029/​1999PA000430

Foreman, H.P., 1975. Radiolaria from the North Pacific, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 32. In Larson, R.L., Moberly, R., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 32: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 579–676.

Haslett, S.K., 1994. Plio–Pleistocene radiolarian biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the mid-latitude North Atlantic (DSDP Site 609). Geol. Mag., 131:57–66.

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Hayward, B.W., 2001. Global deep-sea extinctions during the Pleistocene ice-ages. Geology, 29:599–602. doi:10.1130/​0091-7613(2001)029<0599:GDSEDT >2.0.CO;2

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Kemp, A.E.S., and Baldauf, J.G., 1993. Vast Neogene laminated diatom mat deposits from the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature (London, U. K.), 362:141–144. doi:10.1038/​362141a0

Kissel, C., Laj, C., Labeyrie, L., Dokken, T., Voelker, A., and Blamart, D., 1999. Rapid climatic variations during marine isotopic Stage 3: magnetic analysis of sediments from Nordic Seas and North Atlantic. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 171:489–502. doi:10.1016/​S0012-821X(99)00162-4

Kleiven, H.F., Jansen, E., Curry, W.B., Hodell, D.A., and Venz, K., 2003, Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation changes on orbital to suborbital timescales during the mid-Pleistocene. Paleoceanography, 18. doi:10.1029/​2001PA000629

Kling, S.A., 1973. Radiolaria from the eastern North Pacific, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 18. In Kulm, L.D., von Huene, R., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 18: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 617–671.

Koç, N., and Flower, B.P., 1998. High-resolution Pleistocene diatom biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of Site 919 from the Irminger Basin. In Saunders, A.D., Larsen, H.C., and Wise, S.W., Jr. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 152: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 209–219. [PDF]

Koç, N., Hodell, D.A., Kleiven, H., and Labeyrie, L., 1999. High–resolution Pleistocene diatom biostratigraphy of Site 983 and correlations with isotope stratigraphy. In Raymo, M.E., Jansen, E., Blum, P., and Herbert, T.D. (Eds.), 1999. Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 162: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 51–62. [HTML]

Krissek, L.A., and St. John, K.E.K., 2002. Pleistocene iceberg production from East Greenland: synchronous between source areas, but distinct from global ice volume. Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 49:79–89.

Lacasse, C., Carey, S., and Sigurdsson, H., 1998. Volcanogenic sedimentation in the Iceland Basin: influence of subaerial and subglacial eruptions. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83:47–73. doi:10.1016/​S0377-0273(98)00015-8

Lisiecki, L.E., and Raymo, M.E., 2005. A Pliocene–Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography, 20. doi:10.1029/​2004PA001071

Lourens, L.J., Antonarakou, A., Hilgen, F.J., Van Hoof, A.A.M., Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., and Zachariasse, W.J., 1996. Evaluation of the Plio–Pleistocene astronomical timescale. Paleoceanography, 11:391–413. doi:10.1029/​96PA01125

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Motoyama, I., 1997. Origin and evolution of Cycladophora davisiana Ehrenberg (Radiolaria) in DSDP Site 192, Northwest Pacific. Mar. Micropaleontol., 30:45–63. doi:10.1016/​S0377-8398(96)00047-3

Murray, J.W., 1991. Ecology and Palaeoecology of Benthic Foraminifera: London (Longman).

Nigrini, C., 1971. Radiolarian zones in the Quaternary of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. In Funnell, B.M., and Riedel, W.R. (Eds.), The Micropalaeontology of Oceans: Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press), 443–461.

Nigrini, C., 1977. Tropical Cenozoic Artostrobiidae (Radiolaria). Micropaleontology, 23:241–269.

Pflaumann, U., Sarnthein, M., Chapman, M., de Abreu, L., Funnell, B., Huels, M., Kiefer, T., Maslin, M., Schulz, H., Swallow, J., van Kreveld, S., Vautravers, M., Vogelsang, E. and Weinelt, M., 2003. Glacial North Atlantic: Sea-surface conditions reconstructed by GLAMAP 2000. Paleoceanography, 18(3). doi:10.1029/​2002PA000774

Raymo, M., Ganley, K., Carter, S., Oppo, D.W., and McManus, J., 1998. Millenial-scale climate instability during the early Pleistocene epoch. Nature (London, U. K.), 392:699–702. doi:10.1038/​33658

Riedel, W.R., and Sanfilippo, A., 1970. Radiolaria, Leg 4, Deep Sea Drilling Project. In Bader, R.G., Gerard, R.D., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 4: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 503–575.

Robertson, J.H., 1975. Glacial to interglacial oceanographic changes in the northwest Pacific, including a continuous record of the last 400,000 years [Ph.D. dissert.]. Columbia Univ., New York.

Ruddiman, W.F., 1977. Late Quaternary deposition of ice-rafted sand in the subpolar North Atlantic (Lat 40°N to 65°N). Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 88:1813–1827.

Sanfilippo, A., and Nigrini, C., 1998. Code numbers for Cenozoic low latitude radiolarian biostratigraphic zones and GPTS conversion tables. Mar. Micropaleontol., 33:109–117. doi:10.1016/​S0377-8398(97)00030-3

Sato, T., Kameo, K., and Mita, I., 1999. Validity of the latest Cenozoic calcareous nannofossil datums and its application to the tephrochronology. Earth Sci., 53:265–274.

Tiedemann, R., Sarnthein, M., and Shackleton, N.J., 1994. Astronomic timescale for the Pliocene Atlantic δ18O and dust flux records of Ocean Drilling Program Site 659. Paleoceanography, 9:619–638.

Weaver, P.P.E., and Clement, B.M., 1987. Magnetobiostratigraphy of planktonic foraminiferal datums, DSDP Leg 94, North Atlantic. In Ruddiman, W.F., Kidd, R.B., Thomas, E., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 94: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 815–829.

Westberg-Smith, M.J., and Riedel, W.R., 1984. Radiolarians from the western margin of the Rockall Plateau: Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 81. In Roberts, D.G., Schnitker, D., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 81: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 479–501.

Westberg-Smith, M.J., Tway, L.E., and Riedel, W.R., 1987. Radiolarians from the North Atlantic Ocean, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 94. In Ruddiman, W.E., Kidd, R.B., and Thomas, E., et al. (Eds.), Init. Repts. DSDP, 94: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 763–777.